Wednesday, August 26, 2020

College SAT Requirements How to Find What SAT Score You Need

School SAT Requirements How to Find What SAT Score You Need SAT/ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Perhaps you definitely know your top school decision. Presently you need to realize what SAT score you have to get into your fantasy school. Tragically, there’s no basic answer. By and large, there is no SAT score prerequisite that promises you affirmation, particularly for the most specific universities. On the other hand, there normally isn’t a SAT score that will naturally exclude you from confirmation since schools utilize all encompassing affirmations. Your application will be assessed on your GPA, extracurricular exercises, suggestions, individual exposition, and SAT score. Be that as it may, your SAT score will fundamentally improve or diminish your probability of confirmation, and you can utilize accessible measurements to decide the SAT score you have to improve your odds of having the option to go to a specific school. Schools by and large state that they don't have SAT prerequisites, however in the event that you get a 800 and need to go to Harvard, measurably, you have almost a 0% possibility of picking up confirmation. In this article, I will examine SAT score prerequisites and how your SAT score impacts the school affirmations process. Will Your SAT Score Guarantee Your College Admission? Alone, your SAT score can't ensure your school acknowledgment. At the most specific schools, even understudies with flawless SAT scores are routinely dismissed. Recollect that your SAT score is just a single segment of your application, yet a significant one. An article from a 2013 release of Stanford Magazine expressed that 69% of Stanford candidates from the past 5 years with immaculate 2400 SAT scores (on the old test) were denied affirmation. What's more, from that point forward, the general acknowledgment rate to Stanford has dropped even lower. While your SAT score alone can't ensure your admission to a particular school, there are universities where your SAT score joined with your GPA can ensure affirmation. For California understudies, at the University of California, if your evaluations and state administered test scores joined are in the top 9% of California secondary school graduates and you're not acknowledged to any of the UC grounds you apply to, you'll be offered a spot at another grounds if space is accessible. Also, different states have ensured affirmation at a few or the entirety of their state funded colleges in the event that you get a specific GPA and SAT score. A portion of the states that offer ensured confirmation incorporate Iowa, Nevada, Texas, and Missouri. You should check the affirmations prerequisites on a school's site to check whether there is a comparable program and to discover the GPA and SAT score necessities for programmed confirmation. What Score Do You Need to Increase Your Chances of Admission? The SAT score required to improve your chances of picking up admission to a school differs relying upon the school. By and large, you should focus on in any event the 75th percentile SAT score of that school for your score to emphatically impact your application. Most schools distribute their 25th and 75th percentile scores. The rationale behind this system is that if your SAT score is well over the score of most of understudies at the school, at that point your SAT score will without a doubt help you when your application is assessed. Recall that on the off chance that you score over the 75th percentile for a school, at that point you've scored higher than in any event 75% of the understudies who go there. Your scores will contrast well with those of current understudies and that will altogether improve your odds of getting in. In any event, during the years when Stanford dismissed 69% of candidates with flawless SAT scores, the 31% acknowledgment rate for understudies with immaculate SAT scores was a whole lot higher than the general acknowledgment rate. During that time, the acknowledgment rate was 6%-8%. Understudies who got immaculate SAT scores gave themselves a drastically preferable possibility of being acknowledged over in the event that they had gotten a normal score for a Stanford candidate. On the off chance that your SAT score is nearer to the 25th percentile, at that point another segment of your application ought to be remarkable to have a practical taken shots at confirmation. On the off chance that your score is essentially lower than the 25th percentile, your chances of getting in are extremely thin. The most effective method to Find a School's 25th/75th Percentile SAT Scores To discover a school's 25th and 75th percentile SAT scores, you can utilize the PrepScholar database. We've accomplished the work for you. On your preferred web crawler, you can connect (school name) SAT necessities prepscholar and you'll find the solutions you're searching for. For instance, in case you're looking for UCLA, simply Google UCLA SAT necessities prepscholar. Here is all the data for Stanford University. For another model, here is all the data for the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Additionally, you should discover a school's strategy with respect to score decision and superscoring. PrepScholar school profiles give that data to you also. Step by step instructions to Determine Your SAT Target Score While planning for your SAT, you ought to have an objective score as a top priority. Your objective score can impact your examining, test-taking systems, and propel you to continue improving your SAT abilities. Here's the way to decide your SAT target score. Make a rundown of the schools you're keen on applying to. The normal of their 75th percentile SAT scores will be your objective score. To decide your area target scores, isolate your SAT target score by 2. In case you're applying to a building or science program, your math score can be marginally higher. Essentially, in case you're applying to a humanities program, your perusing and composing score can be somewhat higher. For progressively explicit data about SAT target scores, look at the post on what's a decent SAT score. Will Getting a Low SAT Score Prevent You From Going to College? Getting a low SAT score may keep you from getting into the school you had always wanted, yet it shouldn't prevent you from setting off for college. There are various schools that don't require SAT scores by any means. Likewise, most junior colleges don't require SAT scores. You generally have the alternative of heading off to a 2-year school and moving to a 4-year college. Remember that on the off chance that you do ineffectively on your SAT, high evaluations in school prep classes can make up for low grades. How well you do in four years of secondary school is more imperative to universities than how well you do on one government sanctioned test. In any case, on the off chance that you need to contend in NCAA sports, there are least SAT and ACT scores you should be qualified to contend. It's as yet conceivable to get into school on the off chance that you have low SAT scores. There may not be exacting SAT prerequisites for explicit schools or school all in all, yet excelling on your SAT should give you more school alternatives and improve your probability that you'll be admitted to the universities you need to join in. What's Next? For those of you despite everything wanting to arrive at your SAT target score, read these articles on the most proficient method to improve your SAT score and how to get an ideal SAT score. Additionally, figure out how to assemble the most flexible school application. Baffled with your scores? Need to improve your SAT score by 160 points?We've composed a guide about the best 5 techniques you should use to have a taken shots at improving your score. Download it with the expectation of complimentary at this point: Have companions who likewise need assistance with test prep? Offer this article! Tweet Justin Berkman About the Author Justin has broad experience showing SAT prep and directing secondary school understudies through the school confirmations and choice procedure. He is immovably dedicated to improving value in training and helping understudies to arrive at their instructive objectives. Justin got an athletic grant for aerobatic at Stanford University and graduated with a BA in American Studies. Get Free Guides to Boost Your SAT/ACT Get FREE EXCLUSIVE insider tips on the most proficient method to ACE THE SAT/ACT. 100% Privacy. No spam ever. hbspt.forms.create({ portalId: '360031', formId: '2167ba30-e68e-4777-b88d-8bf3c84579af', formInstanceId: '2', submitButtonClass: 'btn-red-light btn', target: '#hubspot-container2', redirectUrl: ' in bless your heart', css: '.post-base .hs-form.stacked mark {display:none;} .post-base .hs-form.stacked .field div.input {padding-top: 55px; cushioning left: 300px;} .post-base .hs-input {width: 220px} .post-base .btn-essential, .hs-button.primary {margin-top:0px; cushioning left:350px} .post-base .hs-structure field {margin-bottom:5px}' }); $(function(){ $(.exclusive-tip-structure #hubspot-container2 label).hide(); }); work replace_tag(a, b){ $(a).each(function(index) { var thisTD = this; var newElement = $(); $.each(this.attributes, function(index) { $(newElement).attr(thisTD.attributes[index].name, thisTD.attributes[index].value); }); $(this).after(newElement).remove(); }); } $(function(){ replace_tag($(.posts-by-point h3), h2); }) Pose an Inquiry BelowHave any inquiries concerning this article or different subjects? 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Saturday, August 22, 2020

Help Shape Future Societies Into Great Ones Religion Essays

Help Shape Future Societies Into Great Ones Religion Essays Help Shape Future Societies Into Great Ones Religion Essay Help Shape Future Societies Into Great Ones Religion Essay The Hebrew s left little writing to demo their imposts. Truth be told the solitary writing that is left from Hebrew society is otherworldly content. The core artistic plants being the Torah or Pentateuch, which is the initial five books of the Bible. These plants were non arranged all together of books until after the fall of the Hebrew state. From these writings we gain proficiency with a few things about how they lived. They were an extremely thorough society. They were non human-centric, yet accepted that God was the solitary of import being. This human advancement had a monotheistic conviction. The God that they revered was a just God and they did non request Him. God had full command over what took topographic point in their development. In the event that they addressed God they accepted that they would be rebuffed. In spite of the fact that Hebraic development is extremely unique in relation to present day twenty-four hours human advancement, there are three of import inside in formations that are as yet significant today. First Hebrew development was a Patriarchal society. Following, dress was of import to the situation of grown-up male. Last, justness was of import to their way of life. All through this exposition I am making a trip to elucidate how these things were winning to their general public and how they are as yet a part of our own today. One way that advanced human progress is like the Hebrew s is that it was a Patriarchal society. In the story of Noah in the book of Genesis no names of the grown-up females are referenced. Despite the fact that our general public has come a long way in this nation. We are as yet a grown-up male first society. In a marriage the grown-up females generally take the grown-up male s last name. A customary pre-marriage ceremony ordinarily finishes with the expression I currently present to you Mr. furthermore, Mrs. embed grown-up male s name here. In most two-parent puts the grown-up male is the caput of the family. T his is valid in my family unit in any event. Work powers are ordinarily the 1s that hold the vast majority of the significant level occupations in America. Most political spots are help by work powers each piece great. They ordinarily make a higher salary than grown-up females in a similar spot as them. In the story of innovative movement the Hebrew s saw Eve in a low-level place and accept that she was the ground for the pre-winter of grown-up male. This sets the stage for how starting now and into the foreseeable future grown-up females are nt referenced so a lot and are in lower puts in the Torah. In spite of the fact that our general public is nt near each piece male centric as the Hebrew s were, we despite everything have plentifulness of sexual orientation imbalance. Another characteristic of Hebrew progress that is as yet seeable today is the means by which clothes were of import and demonstrated the situation of grown-up male. This is obvious in the story of Joseph, which is other than in the book of Genesis. The coat that Joseph is given meant riches. The Jews cherished holding a cluster of shading in their array. The length of a coat other than was of import in the family unit. As Joseph rose in influence his attire exemplified more riches. As he fell in force or position he was deprived of his clothes or had clothes as pieces of clothing. In our general public today clothes much of the time do demo position. People groups need to buy the top exchange names so they can lift to a higher position or if nothing else seem like they are of a higher classification. People groups in high places are relied upon to have on more pleasant vesture than those in the lower classifications. People groups imagine this happens simply in secondary school with fledglings yet this is regular in adults each piece great. The expensive shops that well off, shrill individuals store at, ensure that it is non simple for low classification individuals to shop where they shop. Apparel, as in the Hebrew human advancement shows position of the social orders individuals. Third, justness was a property that was of import to the Hebrew s. It is something that is other than of import in our general public in spite of the way that we see it extremely in any case than the Hebrew s did in their clasp. Their situation of justness is shown in how God rebuffs His kin. It is appeared in a large number of the artistic plants that we have contemplated. The account of Creation shows their situation of justness. Adam was condemned to an existence of troublesome work alongside each other homo that was to come. Eve would suffer from birth strivings and the snake would eat soil. God had justness how he saw fit of rage. That would be the means by which the Hebrew s saw this situation. Equity is other than appeared in the story of Noah and the Tower of Babel. Today we take a gander at justness a little spot extraordinary. Our contemplations of justness appear to come to a grea t extent from the court. We consider liable until demonstrated unpracticed individual or an oculus for an oculus. We most likely inquiry things not at all like the Hebrew s. Actually justness is a perplexing thing in our social orders eyes. We without a doubt do nt hold an ideal justness framework, however it is something that we see actually amazingly, much like the Hebrew s. In choice, the Hebrew development has given a couple of things to our advanced twenty-four hours society. We contrast in numerous nations yet through clasp and a wide range of civilisations the entirety of the developments have shaped our general public into what it is today. The writing that has been abandoned from all civic establishments has given us a look into how our way of life has formed into what it is today. The Hebrew customs went along to us the attribute of a man centric culture. Despite the fact that along these lines, life previously and incompletely now has been all the more hard for grown-up f emales. Hebrew s other than identified with us in the way that vesture is of import to demoing the situation of grown-up male. Last, they esteemed justness. Despite the fact that they esteemed it extremely in any case than our general public, it was as yet of import to them, much like it is to our general public. Customs are passed down from coevalss to coevalss as they are passed down things modification. We perceive that through the writing that we read from the past civic establishments. As clasp passes by and more writing is composed we will at last be the past civic establishments. What we are go forthing behind today could help decide future social orders into incredible 1s!

Friday, August 21, 2020

How to Analyze Your Competitive Landscape Using Game Theory

How to Analyze Your Competitive Landscape Using Game Theory Success in business is hinged on many factors that owners and managers must focus on. One of these factors is the competition or, in a broader sense, the competitive climate that the business is operating in. This calls for looking and understanding the competitive landscape of the company. © | ImageFlowIn this article, you will first 1) get a short overview ot techniques to investigate the competitive landscape, and learn then about 2) using game theory to analyze your competitive landscape.THE COMPETITIVE LANDSCAPECompetitive landscape is simply defined as the analysis of how a business compares to other similar or competiting businesses. This analysis is often seen as all-encompassing, as it takes a look at a company’s products, services, strengths, weaknesses, growth models, and even sales and market share levels. This also involves the identification of the company’s rivals in the industry or the niche it belongs to, understanding what makes them tick, and figuring out how to hold their own and, eventually, do better than the competition.Why is there a need for businesses to know what their competitors are doing? Why should they care? Never forget that markets are essentially systems, where one action in one area may evoke responses from other areas. If a business hopes to have a solid footing in the market, it has to be aware of the possible responses of the competition. By knowing your competition, you are in a better position to understand why they responded in one way, instead of another way.In order to analyze a company’s competitiveness in the face of its rivals and competitors, there are several techniques employed by the so-called competitive intelligence analysts. Here are some of the most commonly used techniques:ADL MatrixIn this matrix, analysts look into a company’s level of industry maturity in relation to its competitive position, and how their relationship figures in the overall competitive strategy employed by the company. It tackles four stages in the industry life cycle: Embryonic, Growing, Mature, and Aging; while it named four competitive positions, namely: Weak, Tenable, Favorable, Strong and Dominant.Porter’s Five ForcesIn this framework developed by Michael Porter of Harvard Business School, the level of competitiveness of a company depends on the balance of power, or the 5 competitive forces that influences an industry: Rivalry or competition, Threat of New Entrants, Threat of Substitutes, Supplier Power and Buyer or Customer Power. In order for a company to have an advantage over its rivals in the industry, these forces have to be analyzed and used to determine the strengths and weaknesses of an industry.The Space MatrixThis analysis method focuses mainly on the competitive position of a company, taking into consideration its competitive advantage, financial strength, environmental stability and industry strength. The results of the analysis of these dimensions will enable the company to determine whether its strategic strength is classified as aggressive, competitive, conservative, or defensive.War GamingAs the phrase implies, war gaming involves playing out various scenarios of probable business actions or moves by competitors, and the possible responses of the com pany to these tactics and strategic moves. It is a simulation method used by many businesses in anticipation of their competition’s actions. As a tool to analyze the competitive landscape, it is very useful in understanding barriers to entry, gathering competitive intelligence, validating competitors’ strategies, and optimizing operational parameters.These are only a few of the techniques used by analysts to gain an understanding of the competitive landscape. Aside from the abovementioned techniques, there is one other method commonly used by analysts and even some of the largest companies in the world today, such as Microsoft and Chevron: the Game Theory.USING GAME THEORY TO ANALYZE COMPETITIVE LANDSCAPEMany are likely to think that War Gaming and Game Theory are one and the same or, at least, very similar.In order to anticipate the future actions or strategic moves of competitors, Game Theory serves as the “systematic study of strategies for dealing with competitive situatio ns where the results of one party will depend largely on that of the other parties or players”. Simply put, it recognizes that the success of making a choice or a decision will depend largely on the choices or decisions made by others.The similarities seen by many between War Gaming and Game Theory is probably due to the fact that the latter traces its origins in military theory, based largely on several warfare strategies and tactics that were used during the cold war. Thanks to mathematics, it has evolved into something more structured; hence, the Game Theory that we know about today.There is one important note to be aware of when using Game Theory to analyze the competitive landscape of a business: it is relevant only when there are relatively few players, or competitors, within that landscape. The results of the analysis becomes slightly irrelevant when there are a lot of players involved, since the impact of an action by one player will not be significant for the others. This method also entails looking hard at pay-offs and, with multiple players in the fold, there’s a chance that analysts will end up looking at a multitude of possible outcomes, which will eventually cloud the results of the analysis.Through Game Theory, businesses can determine the probable strategies that will be employed by their competitors in order to maximize their business objectives. It is also a way for them to get into their competitors’ heads and understand how their own choices have influenced those strategies.Elements of the GameLet us first take a look at the concept of “game” in Game Theory. There are five components involved:A set of players, or the decision-makers;A set of available strategies, actions or moves that players can make at specific points in the game;A set of payoffs or outcomes that are determined by the sequences of strategies or moves made by the players;Sets of information or knowledge that players will base their decisions or choices on; andEqu ilibria, or a stable result, where players may have considered all the information and the actions and strategies of other players, but still did not change their earlier choice or decision.A game of chess has often been likened to the game played in business or economics. There are the players squaring off against each other over a chessboard, with moves that they can use, all of which have been defined by the rules of chess. It is possible that the more experienced player wins while the other loses, or the other way around. But another possibility is that the game ends up in a draw, with neither team having a decisive win. This whole concept is also applicable in business, where you have two firms or companies pitted against each other, selling the same products or services in the same industry, and targeting the same market or audience. They have their own sets of strategies in order to sell more, or reach more of the market. The possible outcomes include one company outdoing or “outselling” the other, or both companies making the same impact to the market, more like a “draw” in a game of chess.Knowing the elements of a game will help us better understand they key assumptions of Game Theory.The players are rational maximizers. The competitors are seen as individuals or entities that add up and look at the pros and cons of every action or decision, and make a choice based on the outcome, choosing that which maximizes the benefit in his favor. Essentially, the players are seen as egoists, tending to display rational behavior when it is their own interests at play.The general argument against this assumption is on the presumed rationality of the players. After all, in the real world, not all humans do behave rationally, even if it is for their own benefits.The players have full information about each other. The Game Theory assumes that the competitors or players already understand everything that you are doing, as well as everything that they can do.Al l the payoffs are known. The players are fully aware of what the possible outcomes are, and what payoffs are expected.In reality the full information and payoffs are not known with certainty.Type of Games and Modes of PlayIn Game Theory, there are two types of games: the simultaneous games and the sequential games. 1. Simultaneous GamesIn this type of game, the moves are made at the same time. In a business context, it could mean two or three competitors making choices simultaneously, even before knowing what choices or decisions the other players are making.An example would be two U.S. fast food chains â€" let us call them Company A and Company B â€" deciding whether to enter the Southeast Asian Market or not. Both are aware of the other contemplating on this entry, and they are also mulling over the decision at the same time.The two companies make their own analysis on the market entry, and come up with a decision without waiting to hear what the other company has decided on. For instance, Company A may have decided to enter the market without knowing that Company B decided not to set up shop in the region. 2. Sequential GamesAs the name implies, these are games where the strategies or moves are made in sequence. The classic example is a game of chess, where one player cannot make a move unless the other player is done with his turn. They will be making their move based on the action or move previously made by the competition. Logical reasoning often comes into play here, since the players strategize after the competition has made their choice.In the example used in the Simultaneous Games, let us assume that Company A already has entered the Southeast Asian market, and Company B is contemplating on whether to follow suit or not. Company B saw that Company A is doing well in the region, so now it is seriously considering opening its fast food chain in the region as well. This is sequential, since Company B is only making a decision after Company A has made it s move.More than timing, what really differentiates these games is the availability of information before they make their own moves. In the real world, businesses actually play both games, combining elements of simultaneous and sequential games when making decisions.There are two modes of play prevalent in Game Theory. a. Non-cooperative GamesThis approach assumes that each player aims to maximize its own profit, depending on how the other players will act. In these types of games, players have a ‘dominant strategy’, or that one strategy that provides a payoff higher than the others, regardless of the choice or decision made by the other players. When faced with several options or choices, Game Theory would hold that the company should pick that which is best, since it is its dominant strategy.We have to take into account the so-called “Nash Equilibrium”, formulated by inventor John Nash. This is that state where “no player has an incentive to deviate from his chosen strat egy, even after taking into consideration the choice or decision made by the competition or other players. In short, even if the other players revealed their playing hand or their actions, it will not affect your own behavior or make you change your earlier decision or strategy, for the simple reason that it will not benefit you to do so. It becomes an equilibrium if the other player does the same, and neither of you has an incentive to change his chosen strategy.In conjunction with the Nash Equilibrium, the Prisoners’ Dilemma concept was also tackled. It gave the classic example of two prisoners being held for questioning in separate cells, with each of them given two choices: betray the other by turning in evidence and get a lighter jail sentence for it, or choosing not to snitch and keep quiet. It is either Defect or betray the other prisoner, or cooperate with the other prisoner and say nothing.The highest payoff is clear: getting a shorter jail sentence. However, there is a c hance that the two prisoners may choose to defect and betray each other. This would result in longer jail sentences for both of them. If only one defects and the other cooperates, the latter will get the harsher punishment, while the former will get the higher payoff.Nash equilibrium takes place when the two players choose to defect, because none of them is able to improve his situation or get the maximum possible payoff.Non-cooperative games are often presented in two forms: the extensive form and the normal form.Extensive Form: Normally used to represent non-cooperative games, this representation makes use of trees, with nodes (or vertex) representing points where the players have to make choices. It is somewhat similar to a decision tree, with lines representing possible actions and the payoffs presented at the bottom.In this form, the game is structured, with perfect information provided and decision-making done in a sequential manner. It begins with one player choosing one of a series of choices, and another player making a choice after having seen the decision by the first player. It ends when each player has obtained their payoffs.Normal Form: Also used for non-cooperative games, the normal form makes use of a matrix or a square with the main elements of the game â€" the players, actions/strategies, and payoffs â€" fully mapped out, with all the strategies or actions clearly associated with a payoff for each player.This representation also works best in simultaneous games, or games where the players make decisions without knowledge of the choices of the other players.b. Cooperative GamesThese take on a cooperative behavior among players, where they collaborate and agree on their strategic decisions and choices. The choices are made jointly, instead of separately.While there is no major argument against the overall cooperative approach, the main question arises with respect to the sustainability of its rewards. There are possibilities where a player can defect from what was agreed upon â€" after all, there is an incentive to do so, as the benefits could be greater for the player if it chooses to unilaterally alter its decision or switch strategies.Framework of Game TheoryThe applicability of the Game Theory varies, depending on the circumstances or the situations being evaluated or analyzed. However, over the years, analysts have been able to simplify its application. Here is a framework that can be followed by analysts when using the Game Theory to evaluate the competitive landscape.Defining the problem.Identifying the critical factors affecting competition, such as differentiated products, timing of entry, costs of entry and exit, and other variable costs.Building a game model. This would largely depend on the number of players involved, and what approach will be taken. Will it be cooperative, or non-cooperative?Development of intuition through the model built.Formulation of a strategy, after taking into account all the possible scenarios and situations.At best, the Game Theory is designed to come up with optimal rather than maximum strategies. It may not be the best and most recommended competitive intelligence analysis tool â€" even now, there are some questions on its applicability â€" but it certainly helps in providing businesses a clearer picture of the competitive field.

Sunday, May 24, 2020

The Criminal Justice System - 2593 Words

In the criminal justice system there is very rarely a single linchpin that can be pointed to and held responsible for the failure to convict a seemingly guilty person. This reigns true for the very public prosecutions of both Casey Anthony and George Zimmerman. In the eyes of a vast majority of the public, fueled by media spectacle and opinion, Anthony and Zimmerman were guilty even before they ever saw the inside of a courtroom. There simply could be no other answer. The public was subsequently outraged when, after what seemed to be trials of certainty, juries acquitted each. The public sought to find someone, or something to blame. The verdict could not be accepted and many turned their focus to condemn the workings of the criminal†¦show more content†¦In each case we can seek to highlight what the defense did right, what the prosecution did wrong, the evidence in each case, the media s role, and how all of these things worked together to lead the juries to decide the way they did. Overview of the Cases It is important to start with a brief overview of the cases to re-familiarize the details and circumstances; for brevity, only an overview of each case is presented. In July of 2008, a 2-year-old Caylee Anthony is missing as her grandmother calls the police to report that her daughter s car smells as if it had contained a dead body (CNN, 2014a). When questioned about the whereabouts of her daughter, Casey Anthony admitted that she hadn t seen her in 31 days. She claimed that Caylee was with her nanny, Zenaida Fernandez-Gonzales (Hustmyre, 2014). One day after the 911 call Anthony was arrested on suspicion of child neglect, filing false official statements, and obstructing a criminal investigation, she was later released on bond; meanwhile Caylee is still missing (CNN, 2014a). In September of 2008 the police announced that they did not believe that Caylee was still alive, and in December their suspicions were confirmed (ABC News, 2011a). Anthony was to face trial for the murder of her daughter; prosecutors would seek the death penalty. Anthony s jury was sequestered throughout the trial, and after only 11 hours of deliberation they announced that they acquitted Anthony of any culpability in her

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Education Has Changed The High Quality Education - 2792 Words

Background context Since early 2000s, education has gradually become one of largest service industry in Australia (Department of Education). Large number of students from all different parts of the world choose to come to Australia for its high quality education. Some of them are international students while many others are new immigrants. To be more specific, international enrolments occupied 13% of total VCE and IB (Year 11 and 12) enrolments in 2011 (VCAA, 2012) and 27% of the students are from language backgrounds other than English. This number has certainly grown over the last 4 years. It’s a clear indication that there are large number of students who are not native user of English in Victorian secondary schools. Those students came†¦show more content†¦As a result, those EAL students will struggle due to lack of understanding in the class and gradually lose their motivation to study when they compare themselves to other mainstream students. According to Fernesten (2008), EAL stu dents often fail to perceive themselves as an user of English, but instead they â€Å"reflect the conflict, struggle, and tension of differences in English†. Fernesten then further explained the term â€Å"differences in English† implies that EAL students will often compare themselves to native users of English, and have desire to gain â€Å"native-like language competence† as their goal. However their desire of achieving ‘native-like competence’ do not enhence their language ability, but instead sets a barrier between EAL students and other mainstream students as they (EAL students) see themselves being different from mainstream students and would often exclude themselves from class participation as they afraid of make mistakes in the class. This has significanrly limited their learning in the class. From the same research, Fernesten (2008) concluded that majority of EAL students â€Å"feel inferior to native user of English and see themselves as outsiders†. This will be particularly problematic for schools with large number of EAL enrolments. As a result, many schools have launched various learning support and inclusion policies to accommodate such problems. Policy Artefacts My last placement school is a prestigious

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Forfeiture Clauses in Construction Contract Free Essays

string(61) " on and to follow its actual wording as closely as possible\." In building and engineering contracts it is usual to insert a provision empowering the employer to forfeit certain rights or property of the contractor on the occurrence of certain events. â€Å"Forfeiture clause† is a loose term usually used to describe a clause in a written building contract giving the employer the right upon the happening of an event to determine the contract or the contractor’s employment under it, or to eject the contractor from the site, or otherwise to take the work substantially out of his hands. In standard form building contracts it is usually referred to as ‘determination of employment’ or termination. We will write a custom essay sample on Forfeiture Clauses in Construction Contract or any similar topic only for you Order Now In this sense JCT SBC 05 clauses 8. 4 and 8. 9 which relates to termination by employer and contractor respectively are forfeiture clauses. It is common in construction contracts to find determination clauses allowing either side to bring their contractual obligations to an end should an event specified occur due to the actions or inactions of the other. It would seem that common law determination and determination under a clause of contract are alternatives. There are differences between the processes. First, whereas common law determination depends upon repudiatory conduct or a fundamental breach, the grounds of determination specified by the contract need not exhibit these features, although frequently such will be present. Second, the remedies for common law determination are provided by law, whereas with a contractual determination the clause itself must expressly deal with the issue of remedies. Third, at common law in the face of repudiatory conduct or fundamental breach the innocent party need only indicate to the other that he accepts the breach and considers the contract discharged. Under a contractual determination clause the procedure specified must be carefully followed, failure to so may prevent a successful determination. The right of forfeiture may be stipulated to accrue either 1) on the bankruptcy of the contractor only, or ) on his bankruptcy and also on the occurrence of other events, or 3) on the occurrence of other events only Clause 8. 5. 1 of the JCT SBC 05 states that if the contractor is insolvent, the employment may at any time by notice to the contractor terminate the contractor’s employment. Similarly Clause 8. 10. 1 of the JCT SBC 05 states that the employer is insolvent, the contractor may by notice to the employer terminate the Contractor’s employment under the contract. A provision empowering the employer to forfeit the contract on the bankruptcy of the contractor is introduced into building and engineering contracts for the purpose of preventing a contractor’s trustee in bankruptcy from electing to complete the contract, and such a provision is valid, if it is coupled with a stipulation that the contractor’s contract shall be a personal one; and further, so far as the forfeiture affects the mere licence of the contractor to enter upon the site, it would seem that the revocation of that licence can be conditioned on bankruptcy, as a mere licence does not seem to be included in the definition of property[1]. A trustee, however, would be entitled to enter the site to remove property of the bankrupt in respect of which the employer had no right under the contract The validity of a right to forfeit on the bankruptcy of the contractor is dependent on the nature of what is stipulated to be forfeited. In addition to bankruptcy, forfeiture is usually conditioned upon the happening of one or more of the following events: 1)not commencing the work 2) not regularly proceeding with the work for a fixed number of days[2], 3) not proceeding to the satisfaction of the employer or the architect[3], 4) not proceeding with such despatch as, in the opinion of the architect, will enable the works to be duly completed by the time stipulated, 5) not observing some stipulations of the contract[4] 6) leaving the works in an unfinished state, or 7)failing after proper notice to rectify defective work, 8) not maintaining the works[5] JCT 05 SBC Clause 8. states: 1. Notice of termination of the Contractor’s employment shall not be given unreasonably or vexatiously. 2. Such termination shall take effect on receipt of the relevant notice 3. Each notice referred to in this section shall be given in writing and given by actual, special or recorded delivery. Where given by special or recorded deliv ery it shall, subject to proof to the contrary, be deemed to have been received on the Second Business Day after the date of posting. Also Clause 8. 3 of the JCT 05 states: 1. The provisions of clauses 8. 4 to 8. 7 are without prejudice to any other rights and remedies of the Employer. The provisions of clauses 8. 9 and 8. 10 and (in the case of termination under either of those clauses) the provisions of clauses 8. 12, are without prejudice to any other rights and remedies of the contractor. 2. Irrespective of the grounds of termination, the contractor’s employment may at any time be reinstated if and on such terms as the parties may agree The requirements of the contract must be properly complied with, for the courts construe forfeiture clauses strictly[6], and a wrongful forfeiture by the employer or his agent normally amounts to a repudiation on the part of the employer[7]. There must be some definite unqualified act showing that the power has been exercised, although writing or other formality is not necessary unless expressly required. The contract may also require a certain notice to be given, and that such notice must set out the default complained of[8]. In appropriate circumstances the notice may be of a general character and need not necessarily refer to the number of the clause which is being invoked, provided that there is no doubt that it is exercising or purporting to exercise the contractual power of determination[9]. But it is obviously preferable to state explicitly the clause relied on and to follow its actual wording as closely as possible. You read "Forfeiture Clauses in Construction Contract" in category "Papers" It also seems that if a material statement in such a notice is made recklessly, without an honest belief in its truth, the notice is a nullity. Forfeiture in reliance on such a notice would be ineffective and would normally amount to repudiation by the employer. When an event occurs which gives rise to the right to forfeit, the power of forfeiture must be exercised within a reasonable time or the employer will be deemed to have waived his ight unless the event is a continuing breach of contract. Where the contract provides for termination of the contract by a warning notice followed by a termination and two notices have been served, a party can only rely on that provision if an ordinary commercial businessman can see that that there is a sensible connection between the two notices b oth in content and in time as seen in the case of Architectural Installation Services v James Gibbon Windows[10] Also, where the contract provides for completion by a certain date and also provides for forfeiture for delay, and the completion date has passed, it is a question of construction whether the forfeiture clause for delay can still be enforced. Thus where the object of the clause was to enable the architect to â€Å"have the means of requiring the works to be proceeded with in such a manner and at such a rate of progress as to ensure their completion at the time stipulated† it was held that the clause did not apply after the completion date[11]. But in another contract where the clause provided â€Å"for the execution of the work with due diligence and as much expedition as the surveyor will require†, it was held that the clause was as much applicable to the fulfilment of the contract within a reasonable time as to its completion by the contract date. The parties may agree that any consequences may follow the exercise of a right of forfeiture[12], provided there is no illegality, nor fraud on the bankruptcy law, and the clause is not so onerous that it will not be enforced on the grounds that it is a penalty[13]. The employer is usually given the right to take possession of the site and complete the works. In addition, there is frequently a clause vesting the property in unfixed materials, and perhaps plant, in the employer, or there may be merely a right to seize the materials[14] or hold them by way of lien[15] until they are built into the works, or there may be clauses giving the employer rights to use the contractor’s plants and materials[16]. Where the contractor is guilty of any of the defaults specified in clause 8. . 1 JCT 05 SBC, the contract administrator is to issue a written notice specifying the default. If the default is then continued for 14 days, the employer may within 10 days of the continuance terminate the contractor’s employment by using a notice to this effect. Furthermore, if termination does not take place on this occasion, any subsequent repetition of a specified default gives the employer the right to terminate immediately; there is no need (and indeed no power) to issue a second default notice. 17] It is also expressly provided under clause 8. 2. 1 that a notice of termination is not to be given ‘unreasonably or vexatiously’ When an employer, in exercise of his rights under a forfeiture clause, enters and completes the work and uses the contractor’s materials or plant, or holds retention money due to the contractor, he must, subject to the provisions of the contact, account to the contractor. He will have to show that that the materials and plant and money were expended reasonably[18]. The Court, it would seem ,as seen in Fulton v Dornwell[19], will make full allowance for extra cost caused by the disruption and delay occasioned by the contractor’s default. Also, where the employer determines the contract under a forfeiture clause because of some breach of contract by the contractor, the employer’s right to damages depends upon the wording of the contract. He may not be entitled to the enhanced cost of completing by another contractor if the breach for which he determined the contract did not amount to repudiation and the contract does not so provide. 20] Termination of contract was examined in the recent case between Ellis Tylin ltd v Co-operative Retail services[21]. Co-operative Retail services Ltd (CRS) is a national retailer which operates from approximately 730 premises across the country. In early 1996 it contracted with Ellis Tylin the task of maintaining and repairing mechanical and electrical plant within its various premises. The contract w as for a period of three years with provision for revision of rates of payment at the end of the first and second years. Disputes arose as to the scope and responsibility for works carried out under the agreement and the operation of the contract came to an end three months after the end of the first year. Clause 1. 8 of the agreement concerned the review of fees for the maintenance services and the rights of either party to terminate the contract in the event that agreement could not be reached. Disputes arose as to whether the proper mechanisms for termination had been applied and the court was asked to consider these questions as preliminary issues. It was acknowledged that the right of Ellis Tylin to end the agreement pursuant to clause 18 only arose if Ellis Tylin first took the action described within that clause. This involved making a written proposal for the revision of the amount of the fees after the expiry of ten months from the date of commencement of works. CRS argued that Ellis Tylin had failed to follow this procedure. Counsel for CRS submitted that clause 1. 8 of the contract should be construed either as a determination clause or as a break clause comparable to the type of provision found in leases. Strict compliance was required. The act of contractual determination was one which deprived the other party of the benefit of the contract it had concluded. His honour Judge Bowsher QC reviewed textbooks on the subject of contractual termination. In Chitty on contracts (27th edition)[22], it was stated â€Å"the terms of the of the termination notice may provide that notice can only be given after a specified event†. In the Interpretaion of contracts by Kim Lewison QC[23], it is stated â€Å"An option to terminate is construed in the same manner as any other option, and accordingly any condition must be strictly complied with. Any condition precedent must be strictly fulfilled. The clause must be exercised strictly in accordance with its terms†. Also Hudson’s Building and Engineering (11th edition) states[24], â€Å"Exact and meticulous compliance by the determining party with any formal or procedural requirements laid down in the termination clause, for example, as to notices or time limits, will usually be required if a contractual termination is to be successful† Judge Bowsher added however, that words in a contract should be given a natural and ordinary meaning and he quoted Lord Diplock when he said in Antaios Cia Naveira SA v Salen Rederierna AB[25]: â€Å"if detailed semantic and syntactical words in a commercial contract is going to lead to a conclusion that flouts business common sense, it must be made to yield to business common sense†. Judge Bowsher concluded that whilst Ellis Tylin had given notice earlier than the time period set down in the contract, there could be no doubt of the intention that negotiations should take place for a revision of the fee. Taking into account all the evidence he concluded that Ellis Tylin had given valid notice of termination of agreement. However, subsequent evidence showed that the parties had in fact agreed revision to the fees to be submitted to the second year of the contract. Accordingly the notice of the termination had been overridden, and could not be regarded as a valid notice. By ceasing to work following expiry of its invalid termination notice, Ellis Tylin had repudiated the contract. The wrongful operation of a termination clause (i. e when you are not entitled to) amounts to repudiation. A contractual power of determination will be wrongly exercised if the events upon which it is conditioned are not established (unless the contract provides for that question to be concluded by a binding opinion or certificate). In the great majority of modern contracts the question will be subject to review by an arbitrator or the courts, however; and it has also been seen that the courts have, under some clauses, been prepared to imply a term that the exercise of the power itself should be reasonable as seen in Renard Construction v Minister of Public Works[26]. Contractual determinations will also be wrongful if exercised prematurely in breach of a contractual time limit, however marginally. It is an unavoidable feature of construction contracts that an employer’s purported determination will in nearly all cases constitute a repudiatory breach, if whatever the general merits, it later transpires that the determination was invalid. In such a case, if the contractor has accepted the repudiation by leaving the site, the owner will be liable for the possible heavy damages attendant upon repudiation and cannot, if he discovers his mistake, restore the contract status quo ante without the agreement of the contractor. The purported exercise of a power to forfeit may be invalidated either by reason of the fact that the events upon which it is conditioned have not occurred; or, that a correct notice has not been given[27], or that that a sufficiently clear election to exercise the right has not been made, or that there has been a been delay or other conduct recognising the continued existence of the contract after knowledge of the breach, if the breach is not a continuing one. Generally, the measure of damages in the case of a wrongful forfeiture falls to be determined by the ordinary common law rules. Per Lord Cranworth in Ranger v G. W. R. y,[28]: â€Å"The right of the appellant (the contractor) would be to recover such amount of damages as would put him in as nearly as possible the same position as if no such wrong has been committed-that is, not as if there had been no contract, but as if he had been allowed to complete the contract without interruption† In Smith v Howden Union (1890), the plaintiff had nearly completed a sewerage contract and the engineer fraudulently refused to certify. The defendants took possession of the works and certain plant. It was held that the plaintiff was entitled to damages for prevention of completion, such damages being what he would have been entitled to if he had completed and the engineer had certified; and judgement was given for the unpaid balance of the contract price, extras properly ordered, extras properly certified, and the value of the plant seized. The principle remedy for any breach of contract is an award for damages. As a general principle, where an employer is guilty of a breach of a construction contract, the contractor is entitled to damages under two headings. The first is damages for any actual loss that has been suffered, and the second is damages for any profit of which the contractor had been deprived. Where the employer’s breach is sufficient to justify the contractor in terminating the contract, the contractor is entitled to damages reflecting everything which would have een received under the contract, or proportion of it that remains outstanding at the date of termination, less what it would have cost the contractor to complete the work. It has been clearly established that the damages should include the profit element on work remaining to be done as seen in the landmark case of Wraight Ltd v P H T (Holdings) Ltd[29]. Where, however, the contract is one which the contractor had under-priced and on which t he contractor would thus have made no profit, only nominal damages will be awarded for the employer’s breach. This is because as seen in CP Haulage v Middleton[30], an award of damages should not put the claimant in a better position than if the contract had been performed. But if this procedure was relentless pursued it would lead to a party in default having to pay ‘for all loss de facto resulting from a particular breach however improbable, however unpredictable’. [31] The courts therefore set a limit to the loss for which damages are recoverable, and loss beyond such limit is said to be remote. The famous rule as stated in the case Hadley v Baxendale[32] is: Where two parties have made a contract which one of them has broken the damages which the other party ought to receive in respect of such breach of contract should be such as may fairly and reasonably be considered either (1) arising naturally, i. e according to the usual course of things from such breach of contract itself, or (2) such as may reasonably be supposed to have been in the contemplation of both parties at th e time they made the contract, as the probable result of the breach of it† This is demonstrated in the case of Balfour Beatty Construction (Scotland) Ltd v Scottish Power Plc[33]. The claimants there, who were constructing a concrete aqueduct over a main road, installed a concrete batching plant and arranged for the defendants to supply electricity to it. The claimants needed to pour all the concrete in a single continuous operation and so, when the electricity supply failed, the claimants had to demolish all the work which had been done. Unsurprisingly, it was held that while the defendants were clearly in breach of contract because of the power failure, they were not liable for the extra losses nvolved in the demolition and reconstruction, since the claimants had not informed them that a continuous pour was essential. It has long been established that contractor’s claims for loss and expense under express contractual provisions are assessed in exactly the same way as damages for breach of contract. Any disruption to the regular process of work under a contract may lead the contractor to incur administrative costs, such as the diversion of managerial t ime and effort, at head office. If so, these costs may justifiably be claimed, but it will not be simply assumed that such losses have been suffered. They must be specified and properly supported by the evidence, for example by records of the time spent by individuals in dealing with the particular problem[34]. Where the contract period is prolonged by something for which the employer is contractually responsible, the contractor may may also seek to claim in respect of general office overheads. When making application for the head office overheads part of loss and/or expense under Standard Form Building Contracts, contractors often base their claim on a formula. The Courts have never given approval to the use of formula in this way although they have accepted the use of formulae in certain cases which generally were decided on their own facts. Indeed, the courts have tended to disapprove formulae unless as a last resort or the parties have agreed their use as seen in Alfred Mc Alpine Homes North Ltd v Property Land Contractors Ltd[35]. Actual costs are normally required. Claims for head office overheads are essentially claims for lost opportunity to contribute to those overheads, because the overheads do not actually change or, if they do, the amount of any extra overheads directly resulting from the delay can be claimed separately. Formulae assume a healthy construction industry and a contractor with finite resources with the result that if he is delayed on a project, he will be deprived of the chance to take other work. Where the industry is sluggish or where the contractor is so large that turning away work does not arise, the latter will face difficult problems in showing the lost opportunity[36]. There are several formulae in common use notably Emden formula, Eichleay formula and Hudson formula. Also a contractor who has accepted the wrongful repudiation is not restricted to suing for damages for breach on contract. He may, as an alternative, where he has elected to treat the contract as rescinded, sue upon a quantum meruit. The expression quantum meruit means â€Å"the amount he deserves† or â€Å"what the job is worth†. A quantum reuit clause claim is one in which the contractor seeks payment of the reasonable value of work done for the employer. Where the employer is in breach of contract, the crucial question is whether the contractor in such circumstances can simply ignore the contract and instead claim a reasonable sum for all the work done, even if this means that the contractor recovers more than what would have recovered under the contract. In the situation where there is a contract, then the issue in a Contractual Quantum Meruit claim is either the measure of the â€Å"reasonable sum† or the interpretation of similarly wide express terms. The issue is whether the measure is on the basis of cost or market price. There appears to be no hard and fast rule. In the case of an express contract to do work at an unquantified price, the measure is the reasonable remuneration of the contractor Serck Controls Ltd. v Drake Scull Engineering Ltd[37]. In the case where there was a contract, the assessment of a quantum meruit was usually based on actual cost which would include on and off site overheads provided that it was reasonable and was reasonably and not unnecessarily incurred, plus an appropriate addition for profit[38] Judge Bowsher QC in Laserbore Ltd v Morrison Biggs Wall Ltd[39] had to decide the meaning of the term â€Å"Fair and reasonable payments for all works executed†. He considered that the costs plus basis was wrong in principle even though in some instances it may produce the right result. The appropriate approach was to adopt general market rates. How to cite Forfeiture Clauses in Construction Contract, Papers

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Business Plan of a Café Classic Coffee

Question: Describe business plan of a classic coffee caf. Answer: Classic Coffee is a coffee shop located in Frankston, Victoria. It will owned by Mr. J. Citizen. The product range will include different type of coffees as well as bakery products (Abrams, 2003). The company will focus on offering freshly prepared superior quality food and beverages along with excellent service (Blackwell, 2011). These two factors will be considered to be the core competencies of the business. Target market will include people belonging to middle income group and the age of 15 to 40. Prices of the products will be low in order to attract the target market. The ambience and the rich aroma of coffee ad baking will attract the people passing by the caf (Kienan, 2000). It has been anticipated that the demand will increase gradually in the first year of operation. The market is extensively competitive and in order to achieve sustainable growth in the dynamic Australian market, the caf needs to design effective marketing and operational strategies. The vision of the caf i s to become the most popular and preferred caf of Frankston (Fullen, 2005). The major goal of the caf in order to achieve long term growth includes the following: 1. Retention of the talented workforce in Classic Caf 2. Enhancing the quality of product and services continuously for satisfying the customers and achieve high level of customer loyalty (Abrams and Vallone, 2008). 3. Increase in customer base and average sales size by 20% each year. 4. Product differentiation 5. Enhancing stock control 6. Maintaining healthy relationship with the suppliers. 7. Adoption of sustainable business practices for supporting the society and environment. References Abrams, R. (2003).The successful business plan. Palto Alto, Calif.: Planning Shop. Abrams, R. and Vallone, J. (2008).Successful marketing. Palo Alto, Calif.: The Planning Shop. Blackwell, E. (2011).How to Prepare a Business Plan. London: Kogan Page. Fullen, S. (2005).Opening a restaurant or other food business starter kit. Ocala, Fla.: Atlantic Pub. Group. Kienan, B. (2000).Small business solutions. Redmond, Wash.: Microsoft Press.